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【光明日報】我國科研人員發現66億光年外獨特信號

文章來源:光明日報 常河   發布時間:2019-04-12  【字號:     】  

  借助美國宇航局的錢德拉空間望遠鏡所完成的當今世界上最深最靈敏的X射線巡天觀測——七百萬秒錢德拉南天深場,中國科學技術大學薛永泉教授等人發現了一個持續約7小時的獨特X射線輻射信號,這個信號來自約66億光年外。各種關鍵觀測數據均表明,該信號極有可能源于雙中子星合并之后產生的磁星。

  中子星是宇宙中最為神奇的天體之一,它幾乎全部由中子組成,具有超高密度(為水密度的上億倍)、超強磁場(為地表磁場的上億倍)等極端物理屬性,是檢驗基本物理規律極佳的天然實驗室。然而,迄今為止,人們對于中子星自身基本屬性的認識還是相對模糊的。例如,在宇宙中時有發生的雙中子星合并會產生什么?

  主流的研究觀點認為雙中子星合并之后直接產物是黑洞。但南京大學戴子高教授等人最早預言,若中子星壓強隨核物質密度的變大而顯著增加,則雙中子星合并會產生新的特殊的中子星——磁星。

  磁星,表面磁場比目前人類實驗室能制造出來的最強磁場還強上億倍。它具有超高的自轉速度,每秒自轉幾百上千周。由于磁星的快速自轉,即使它的質量超過中子星質量上限,其離心力也能幫助它短期抗衡自身的強大引力,因而不會坍縮成黑洞。

  雙中子星合并會釋放強烈的引力波輻射,同時還會在周邊拋出大量物質。磁星具有強引力,快速吸入拋出物質,并在兩極方向產生一個只持續幾秒鐘的超高速、準直的噴流。假如噴流方向恰好對著地球,地球附近就能在短時間內探測到大量的高能量伽瑪射線,即天體物理所稱的短伽瑪暴。同時,磁星還會產生持續時間較長的基本各向同性的X射線爆發,可在偏離噴流的方向被探測到。

  中國科學技術大學領銜的研究團隊觀測到了這種以前只存在于理論猜想中的新型X射線信號,在國際上首次證實了雙中子星并合直接產物可以是磁星。該成果于4月11日在線發表在《自然》雜志。

  這一發現證實了雙中子星并合直接產物可以是大質量毫秒磁星,排除了一批核物質模型,明確了一系列關于中子星物態方程與極高磁場強度等基本物理特質,進而深化了對中子星基本屬性的認識。

  即使沒有看到短伽瑪暴,人們也能通過磁星的X射線輻射來了解雙中子星合并以及中子星自身的更多秘密。來自66億光年外的光輝,為未來的引力波探測和中子星研究帶來新的方向。

  中國科大物理學院天文系薛永泉是該論文的第一兼通訊作者,其碩士研究生鄭學琛與美國內華達大學張冰教授為論文共同通訊作者,北京大學李曄博士與紫金山天文臺吳雪峰研究員等人為論文主要作者。

  (原載于《光明日報》 2019-04-12 08版)




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